Skinner Foundation Research Award

Skinner Foundation Research Award

The B. F. Skinner Foundation Research Award for Graduate Student Research in California


The B. F. Skinner Foundation sponsored this award for graduate student research. Typically two awards of $500  each were available each year, with winners given the award at our annual conference.   See past recipients below.

Purpose of the Award 

  • To support and encourage research efforts in behavior analysis among graduate students in California
  • To promote Skinnerian science
  • To boost the overall quality of academic research in behavior analysis
  • To provide recognition for students conducting behavior analytic research 

Congratulations to the 2019 Award Winner!

Karina Zhelezoglo

California State University, Sacramento

Paper: The Use of Auditory Visual Successive Matching to Sample to Establish Cross Modal Equivalence Classes

Advisor: Caio Miguel, Ph.D., BCBA-D

Past Recipients - Congratulations!    (top)

JeNell Patricia Flanagan
California State University, Sacramento
Paper: The Examination of Modeling Positive and Negative Reinforcement Effects on Food Selectivity
Advisor: Dr. Becky Penrod

Nicholas L. Vitale
California State University, Fresno
Paper: Dishabituation of Operant Responding in Preschool Aged Children 
Advisor: Dr. Marianne Jackson 

Catherine Copsey
California State University, Sacramento
Paper: Using Behavior Skills Training to Teach Fall Prevention Skills Following Acquired Brain Injury 
Advisor: Megan Heinicke, PhD, BCBA-D

Amanda Chastain
California State University, Sacramento
Paper: The Role of Class-Consistent versus Class-Inconsistent Verbal Statements on the Establishment of Equivalence Classes
Advisor: Caio Miguel, PhD, BCBA-D


Careen Meyer

“The Effects of Listener Training on the Emergence of Analogical Reasoning” - CSU Sacramento under advisement of Dr. Caio Miguel

Emily Darcey 

“An Evaluation of Matrix Training to Teach College Students Piano Notes and Rhythms” - CSU Sacramento under advisement of Dr. Caio Miguel


Charisse Lantaya
California State University, Sacramento

An Evaluation of Successive Matching-to-Sample in the Development of Emergent Stimulus Relations
Traditionally, behavior analysts have studied stimulus equivalence using a matching-to-sample (MTS) preparation. While researchers have demonstrated the utility of MTS to produce conditional discriminations or equivalence classes, MTS requires several prerequisite skills for a learner to accurately respond to a MTS trial. Without these prerequisites, MTS may produce faulty stimulus control. Animal research has shown that alternatives to MTS such as compound stimulus discrimination and successive matching-to-sample has been sufficient to produce relational responding. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of successive matching-to-sample (S-MTS) as an alternative method for the establishment of stimulus relations with adults. S-MTS trials consist of the presentation of a single sample stimulus followed by one comparison stimulus on a fixed location on the screen. Dependent on the relation of the sample stimulus and comparison stimulus, the participant either responds (i.e., go) or does not respond (i.e., no-go) to the comparison stimulus. Following training of baseline relations (AB/BC), participants will receive tests to evaluate the effects of S-MTS on the emergence of untrained relations (i.e., BA/CB and AC/CA). This study has direct implications for participants for whom traditional three-array matching-to-sample procedures may be challenging.

Anthony Oliver
University of the Pacific

Evaluation and Correspondence of Informant Assessments and Functional Analyses Completed by Practitioners
One of the defining aspects of current clinical practice is functional behavior assessment (FBA), which refers to a set of assessment strategies in which the practitioner or researcher collects information about the function of a given behavior so as to inform subsequent intervention strategies (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). Previous studies comparing the outcomes of informant assessments and experimental analyses have reported relatively moderate levels of agreement (Hall, 2005;  Iwata, DeLeon, & Roscoe, 2013;  Smith, Smith, Dracobly, & Pace, 2012). One of the interesting aspects of these studies is that relatively high levels of agreement are obtained using untrained individuals to complete the informant assessments.  To date there have been no studies examining correspondence using trained behavior analysis practitioners.  Therefore, the purpose of the proposed study is to compare the correspondence between commonly administered informant assessments between trained behavior analysis practitioners and the outcome of an experimental analysis.  Experiment 1 will include 10 behavior analyst practitioner dyads who will be administered commonly used informant assessments and the correspondence between practitioners and informants will be assessed.  Experiment 2 will involve a subset of five dyads from Experiment 1 and the outcomes of their informant assessments will be compared to the outcome of a functional analysis conducted according to the methods described by Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richman (1994).


Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007).  Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.).  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Hall, S. S. (2005). Comparing descriptive, experimental, and informant-based assessments of problem behaviors. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, 514-526.

Iwata, B. A., DeLeon, I. G., & Roscoe, E. M. (2013). Reliability and validity of the functional analysis screening tool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46, 271-284.

Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 197-209. (Reprinted from Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3-20, 1982)

Smith, C. M., Smith, R. G., Dracobly, J. D., & Pace, A. P. (2012). Multiple-respondent anecdotal assessments:  An analysis of interrater agreement and correspondence with analogue assessment outcomes. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 779-795.

Candice Hansard
California State University, Northridge

Video Modeling to Train Individuals
The number of children in need of behavior analytic services far exceeds the number of behavior analysts  who can train and supervise staff to implement assessments and behavior change plans with fidelity.  As such, it is of paramount importance to find ways to maximize a supervisor's time in field.  Graff and Karsten (2012) were the first to find that a self-instructional package was sufficient  for novel staff to correctly conduct a multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) and paired-stimulus  (PS) preference assessment. Shapiro, Mendoza, and Kazemi (2013) replicated this study and found that 28% of  participants still required feedback and in vivo modeling. To maximize supervisor time, I propose to use  a video that includes instruction and modeling to teach undergraduates how to conduct a preference assessment.  I will train five undergraduate students to reach the mastery criteria of 90% or above across two consecutive  trials. All participants will view a video that includes instruction and modeling and will be asked to conduct  a PS preference assessment with a simulated client.


Graff, R. B., & Karsten, A. M. (2012).  Evaluation of a  self-instruction package for conducting stimulus preference assessments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45(1), 69-82.

Shapiro, M., Mendoza, M., & Kazemi, E. (2013).  Maximizing supervisors' efficiency: The use of enhanced written  instructions to teach undergraduates to implement a stimulus preference assessment.  Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, California State University, Northridge.

Marnie Shapiro
California State University, Northridge

Maximizing Supervisors' Efficiency: The Use of Enhanced Written Instructions   to Teach Undergraduates to Implement a Stimulus Preference Assessment
Training of staff to implement preference assessments is of paramount importance  because the efficacy of behavior change programs depends upon staffs' ability to  identify stimuli that may function as reinforcers for individual consumers  (Paramore & Higbee, 2005).  Therefore researchers have developed effective and efficient supervisor-facilitated  training strategies that incorporate a combination of verbal or written instructions,  modeling, rehearsal, and/or feedback to teach staff to implement preference assessments with procedural fidelity  (Roscoe & Fisher, 2008).  However, due to time constraints and staff to supervisor ratios, recent research efforts  have focused on developing training packages that maximize a supervisor's efficiency in field.  Graff & Karsten (2012) were the first researchers to test the efficacy of a self-instructional package  (i.e., enhanced written instructions) that did not require feedback by a supervisor  in order for staff to meet the mastery criterion. The authors noted that although the  use of a self-instructional package resulted in successful outcomes, it is difficult to  determine if their enhanced written instructions would be as effective if the authors  had not first exposed participants to the methods sections of  Fisher et al. (1992) and  DeLeon & Iwata (1996) at baseline. Thus, the purpose of my study is to replicate the methods used by  Graff & Karsten (2012) and to extend and correct for the authors' self-disclosed limitation. At baseline,  I will randomly assign participants to one of two baseline conditions. In the  replication condition, three participants will receive  Graff & Karsten's (2012) modified version of the methods section from  Fisher et al. (1992).  In the extension condition, I will simulate a baseline condition to approximate a real life setting  (Iwata et al., 2000).  Namely, the remaining three participants will receive instructions on a piece of paper  that specify that they need to determine a consumer's preference. I hypothesize that  participants will reach the mastery criterion independent of the type of instructions  given at baseline. Results from this study may contribute to a body of scientific  knowledge which can improve training and supervision procedures used in applied behavior analysis.  


DeLeon, I. G., & Iwata, B. A. (1996).  Evaluation of a  multiple-stimulus presentation format for assessing reinforcer preferences.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29(4), 519-533.  

Fisher, W., Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G., Hagopian, L. P., Owens, J. C., & Slevin, I. (1992).  A comparison of two approaches for identifying reinforcers for persons with severe and profound disabilities.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(2), 491-498.  

Graff, R. B., & Karsten, A. M. (2012).  Evaluation of a  self-instruction package for conducting stimulus preference assessments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45(1), 69-82.  

Iwata, B. A., Wallace, M. D., Kahng, S., Lindberg, J. S., Roscoe, E. M., Conners, J., Hanley, J., Thompson G. P., Thompson, R. H., & Worsdell, A. S. (2000).  Skill acquisition in the  implementation of functional analysis methodology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(2), 181-194.    

Paramore, N. W., & Higbee, T. S. (2005).  An evaluation of a  brief multiple-stimulus preference assessment with adolescents with emotional-behavioral  disorders in an educational setting.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(3), 399-403.  

Roscoe, E. M., & Fisher, W. W. (2008).  Evaluation of  an efficient method for training staff to implement stimulus preference assessments.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(2), 249-254.  

Jonathan Fernand
California State University, Sacramento

The Effect of Choice Between Non-preferred Foods   on the Food Consumption of Individuals with Food Selectivity
Given the previous research on the advantageous effects of providing choices on noncompliance  to demands and escape-maintained behavior  (Powell & Nelson, 1997;  Romaniuk et al., 2002)  as well as the limited research on providing choices within a feeding context  (Cooper et al., 1995),  the purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effect of providing a choice between non-preferred  edible items on the food consumption and problematic mealtime behaviors of individuals with food selectivity.  Further, this study aims to assess the importance of the preference for items within a choice  array when used as a treatment for food selectivity as well as evaluate, if necessary, the  role of choice as an antecedent manipulation in mediating the negative side effects induced  by escape extinction (i.e., nonremoval of the spoon procedure). Results of this study will help  to develop future research regarding the implementation of antecedent interventions as an  alternative to consequence-based interventions for the treatment of food selectivity.  Future studies will be able to use the current research as a preliminary foundation in  examining alterations to choice components on the food consumption of individuals with  feeding disorders. Finally, the outcome of this experiment may impact how clinicians  utilize choice components when treating food-related problem behavior.


Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D. P., McComas, J. J.,  Brown, K., Peck, S. M., Richman, D., Drew, J., Frischmeyer, P., & Millard, T. (1995).  Use of component  analyses to identify active variables in treatment packages for children with feeding disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(2), 139-153.  

Powell, S., & Nelson, B. (1997).  Effects of  choosing academic assignments on a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(1), 181-183.  

Romaniuk, C., Miltenberger, R., Conyers, C., Jenner, N.,  Jurgens, M., & Ringenberg, C. (2002).  The influence of  activity choice on problem behaviors maintained by escape extinction.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35(4), 349-362.  

Bryon Miller
University of the Pacific

Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Young Children
The prevalence of people who are classified as overweight and obese in the United States  is currently at epidemic proportions, with an adult and child combined overweight and  obesity prevalence at 68% and 32%, respectively  (Flegal, Carroll, Ogden, & Curtin, 2010).  Physical activity is a class of observable behavior and therefore amenable to the  seven dimensions of behavioral analysis as outlined by  Baer, Wolf, and Risley  (1968,  1987).  The current study will replicate and extend  Larson, Hustyi, Normand, and Morley (2011)  by evaluating an antecedent based functional analysis for physical activity in  both solitary and group contexts. Additionally, a concurrent chains procedure  will be used to assess activity preference in order to identify possible counter  therapeutic activity preferences  (Hanley, Tiger, Ingvarsson, & Cammilleri, 2009).  Results of the current study will further validate the functional assessment  methodology, through the replication of Larson et al. (2011).  Additionally, the current study will attempt to generalize the findings of   Hanley et al. (2009) to outdoor activities commonly available in primary education institutions.  The results obtained from this study will further extend research on function-based  assessments of physical activity, and will be used to inform subsequent interventions  to increase physical activity.  


Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968).  Some current dimensions of  applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1(1), 91-97.  

Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1987).  Some still-current  dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20(4), 313-327.  

Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogden, C. L., & Curtin, L. R. (2010).  Prevalence and  trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008.  Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(3), 235-241.    

Hanley, G. P., Tiger, J. H., Ingvarsson, E. T., & Cammilleri, A. P. (2009).  Influencing preschoolers'  free-play activity preferences: An evaluation of satiation and embedded reinforcement.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(1), 33-41.  

Larson, T. A., Hustyi, K. M., Morley, A. J., & Normand, M. P. (2011).  The effect of outdoor activity context and group composition on physical activity in preschool children.  Manuscript in preparation.  

Sean Blumberg
University of the Pacific

The Effect of Parent Modeling on the Rate of Food Consumption in Children
The purpose of the current study is to experimentally assess the effect of modeling by a parent on a  child's food consumption rate during snack time.  The current research seeks to expand upon a series  of prior studies assessing modeling effects on drinking behavior in adults  (Caudill & Marlatt, 1975;  DeRicco, 1978;   DeRicco & Garlington, 1977),  eating behavior in adults  (Rosenthal & Marx, 1979;   Rosenthal & McSweeney, 1979),  and a several non-experimental studies assessing modeling influences on the eating behavior of children  (Birch, 1980;  Hendy, 2002;  Salvy, Coelho, Kieffer, & Epstein, 2007;  Salvy, Kieffer, & Epstein, 2008).  No previous study has experimentally demonstrated a modeling effect for food consumption with children.  The current study will adopt several features from prior research and use of a within-subject ABCBC  reversal design with baseline, accelerated, and decelerated consumption modeling conditions.  


Birch, L. L. (1980).  Effects of peer models' food choices and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences.  Child Development, 51(2), 489-496.    

Caudill, B. D., & Marlatt, G. A. (1975).  Modeling influences in social drinking: An experimental analogue.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(3), 405-415.  

DeRicco, D. A., (1978).  Effects of peer majority on drinking rate.  Addictive Behaviors, 3(1), 29-34.    

DeRicco, D. A., & Garlington W. K. (1977).  The effect of modeling and disclosure of experimenter's intent on drinking rate of college students.  Addictive Behaviors, 2(2-3), 135-139.  

Hendy, H. M. (2002).  Effectiveness of trained peer models to encourage food acceptance in preschool children.  Appetite, 39(3), 217-225.  

Rosenthal, B., & Marx, R. D. (1979).  Modeling influences on the eating behavior of successful and unsuccessful dieters and untreated normal weight individuals.  Addictive Behaviors, 4(3), 215-221.    

Rosenthal, B., & McSweeney, F. K. (1979).  Modeling influences on eating behavior.  Addictive Behaviors, 4(3), 205-214.    

Salvy, S. J., Coelho, J. S., Kieffer, E., & Epstein, L. H. (2007).  Effects of social contexts on overweight and normal-weight children's food intake.  Physiology & Behavior, 92(5), 840-846.  

Salvy, S. J., Kieffer, E., & Epstein, L. H. (2008).  Effects of social context on overweight and normal-weight children's food selection.  Eating Behaviors, 9(2), 190-196.  

Lesley A. Macpherson
California State University, Sacramento

A Comparison of Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal and Motor Stereotypy
Stereotypy has been defined as repetitive vocal or motor behaviors that are noncontextual with  invariant topographies  (LaGrow & Repp, 1984). Stereotypy can be exhibited by both typically  and nontypically developing individuals; however, stereotypy exhibited by individuals with  developmental disabilities has been found to be detrimental in a variety of areas. Consequently, a  large body of literature has examined interventions to reduce levels of stereotypic behaviors. For  example, both reinforcement and a variety of punishment procedures have been implemented to  redirect and block stereotypic behaviors. Specifically,  Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) implemented a treatment package consisting of response interruption and redirection  (RIRD) and reinforcement for appropriate vocalizations, as a method to successfully reduce  vocal stereotypy in children with autism. Moreover, concomitant increases in appropriate  vocalizations were also reported. Nevertheless, only two studies have utilized this treatment  package as a method for stereotypy reduction. Results of these studies have suggested that the  topography of the demands to interrupt and redirect must match the topography of stereotypy to  successfully reduce. Therefore, the current investigation will replicate Ahearn et al. and extend  his findings to individuals who engage in either vocal or motor stereotypy. Specifically, both  vocal and motor RIRD procedures will be compared to determine whether the topography of  demands must match the topography of the stereotypic behavior. Likewise, concomitant  increases in appropriate behaviors will also be reported. Results from these comparisons will  reveal the necessity of providing topographically similar demands as incompatible responses and  whether they produce behavioral contrast.


Ahearn, W. H., Clark, K. M., MacDonald, R. P. F., & Chung, B. (2007).  Assessing and treating vocal stereotypy in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 263-275.  

LaGrow, S. J., & Repp, A. C. (1984).  Stereotypic responding: A review of intervention research. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88(6), 595-609.  

Marla D. Saltzman
The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles

An Evaluation of Multiple Exemplar Training on the Emergence of Reverse Foreign-Language  Intraverbals and Listener Responding
The intraverbal is defined as a verbal response under the control of an antecedent verbal stimulus, with no point to point correspondence with that stimulus   (Skinner, 1957/2002)  In many  intraverbal relations, the stimulus and response may be reversed, resulting in two relations; an  original intraverbal (e.g., responding, "mesa," given the verbal stimulus, "table") and a reversal  (e.g., responding, "table," given the verbal stimulus, "mesa"). Though some educators may expect  to see emergence of reverse intraverbals following original intraverbal training, results of the few  studies in this area suggest that a history of multiple exemplar training (MET) with both original  and reverse intraverbals may be required for the emergence of such relations. The purpose of the  present investigation is to examine the effects of two types of foreign-language intraverbal  training on the emergence reverse intraverbals and foreign-language listener responding.  Participants will be six typically developing, English-speaking preschool aged children with little  history with the French language. In the original intraverbal training condition, children will be  taught to emit French names of objects given their spoken English names. In the multiple  exemplar training condition, children will be taught both English-French and corresponding  French-English intraverbal relations. A multiple baseline design across participants will be used to  examine the effects of original and multiple exemplar intraverbal training on the emergence of  reverse (French-English) intraverbals and French listener responding. It is hoped that the findings  and implications of this investigation will be of use, not only to those concerned with second  language instruction, but to general and special educators of students of all ages concerned with  establishing bidirectional intraverbal relations.


Skinner, B. F. (2002).  Verbal behavior.  Cambridge, MA: B. F. Skinner Foundation. (Original work published 1957)

Jared Coon
California State University, Sacramento

The Role of Increased Exposure to and Reinforcement History with Transfer of Stimulus Control Procedures to Teach Intraverbal Behavior
The intraverbal was described by   Skinner (1957/2002) as an elementary verbal operant controlled by verbal discriminative stimuli and has no point-to-point correspondence with the preceding verbal stimulus. Methods used to directly train intraverbal behavior have used tact, echoic, and textual prompts to successfully transfer control to the desired antecedent verbal stimulus. However, only a few studies have compared the effectiveness of differing stimulus prompts to teach intraverbal responses. The results of these studies have been mixed suggesting the possibility that previous exposure to specific prompt types may play a role in determining which prompt type will be most effective in facilitating transfer of control to teach intraverbal responses. The current research will investigate the effects of controlled overexposure and longer reinforcement history associated with an initially less effective prompt type (i.e. tact vs. echoic) using a single-subject multielement design. Results from an initial comparison of tact and echoic prompts to teach two sets of intraverbal responses will reveal which prompting method is more efficient. In a second phase, the prompt type shown to be less expeditious will then be used to train additional sets of intraverbal responses. Finally, both prompt methods will again be utilized to teach novel sets of intraverbal responses and number of trails to criterion measured. Results of this final training session will reveal whether the overtraining condition would alter the efficacy of each prompting procedure method to teach intraverbal responses.


Skinner, B. F. (2002).  Verbal behavior.  Cambridge, MA: B. F. Skinner Foundation. (Original work published 1957)


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